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Official Journal of the Global Newborn Society



Newborn is the official journal of the Global Newborn Society (GNS). Our future, anywhere in the world, depends on how well we take care of our newborn infants. This journal is the primary tool of the GNS for communication, to update everyone on scientific progress in the care of our fetuses prior to birth, in the neonatal period, and during follow-up. 




Submission checklist

Please use this list to check your manuscript before submission, and review all journal policies. Please ensure that the following items are present:

  1. Abstract: a categorized abstract in 4 subtitles: Introduction, methods, results, and conclusions. The abstract should be limited to 250 words. Abstract should not include any abbreviations.

  2. A graphical abstract

  3. Main Abbreviations those are frequently used in the text (>than 5 times)

  4. 10 key words

   5. Manuscript

    a.  Introduction: Please use three paragraphs; the first focused on the problem in the larger context, the second on evolution of the question, and the third on the hypothesis and its justification.

    b.  Methods: Please use the first paragraph to state the sites of study, and confirm that the necessary approvals for human/animal and other studies from the respective ethics board have been obtained. Subsequent 2-3 paragraphs can describe human, translational, and laboratory methods. The last paragraph should detail the statistical methods including statistical software used.

    c.  Results: Please include demographic and key findings in the results in 4 or more paragraphs, starting with the description of the overall human/animal population, and use progressive comparison of subgroups. There may be 3-4 tables, and 3-4 figures. Authors should make sure that they are not duplicating the information between tables and texts.

   d.  Discussion: Please use up to 6-7 paragraphs, where the first is focused on the results vis-à-vis the hypothesis, the next 4-5 on discussing the results in the context of existing information, strengths an limitations and the last focused on conclusions and future needs.

   e.  Acknowledgments: Please use this section to thank efforts that do not reach the threshold for authorship. 

   f.   References: Please use the Vancouver style.

Please also note that a DOI can be included. For web references, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List.


Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. In a special issue, the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text).

  1. All figures with relevant captions

  2. All tables with titles, description, and footnotes

  3. Please ensure that figure and table citations match the files provided

  4. Please indicate if figures should be printed in color

  5. Supplemental files, where applicable (online version only)


Please ensure that:

  1. Front page has a title of up to 20 words;

  2. All authors, names without degrees;

  3. A designated corresponding author with contact details, including the email address, telephone and fax numbers and full postal address;

  4. Funding sources are mentioned;

  5. A statement of competing interests is provided, even if there are none to declare;

  6. Files have been spell-checked and grammar checked;

  7. All references are cited in the text;

  8. Permissions have been obtained for all copyrighted material;

  9. A total word count including main manuscript, tables, and figure legends has been provided.



Please suggest 5 or more referees, if possible, with their names, affiliations, and email IDs. Also, provide If you are not interested to include any referees due to conflict of interest.

All submissions to the journal are first reviewed for completeness and only then sent to be assessed by an Editor who will decide whether they are suitable for peer review. Where an Editor is on the author list or has any other competing interest regarding a specific manuscript, another member of the Editorial Board will be assigned to oversee peer-review. Editors will consider the peer-reviewed reports when making a decision, but are not bound by the opinions or recommendations therein. A concern raised by a single peer reviewer or the Editor her-/him-/themselves may result in the manuscript being rejected. Authors receive peer review reports with the editorial decision on their manuscript.

Proceedings papers are reviewed by the Program Chairs and Program Committee members of the respective conference, with help from external reviewers selected by them.


Peer-reviewer selection

Peer reviewer selection is critical to the publication process. It is based on many factors, including expertise, reputation, specific recommendations, conflict of interest and previous performance. Speed, thoroughness, sound reasoning and collegiality are highly desirable. 

Editor Responsibilities:
●    Editor(s) are expected to obtain a minimum of two peer reviewers for manuscripts reporting primary research or secondary analysis of primary research. It is recognized that in some exceptional circumstances, particularly in niche and emerging fields, it may not be possible to obtain two independent peer reviewers. In such cases, Editor(s) may wish to make a decision to publish based on one peer review report. When making a decision based on one report, Editor(s) are expected to only do so if the peer review report meets the standards set out below.
●    Peer review reports should be in English and provide constructive critical evaluations of the authors’ work, particularly focused on the methods, results, and conclusions. Editorial decisions should be based on peer reviewer comments that meet these criteria rather than recommendations made by superficial peer reviewer reports which do not adequately justify the recommendations.
●    Editor(s) are expected to independently verify the contact details of reviewers suggested by authors or other third parties. Institutional email addresses should be used to invite peer reviewers wherever possible. Each manuscript should be reviewed by at least 1 reviewer who was not suggested by the author.
●    Manuscripts that do not report primary research or secondary analysis of primary research, such as Editorials, Book Reviews, Commentaries or Opinion articles, may be accepted without peer review. Such manuscripts should be assessed by the Editor(s) if the the area of expertise of the Editor(s); if the topic is not in area of expertise of the Editor(s), such manuscripts should be assessed by at least 1 independent expert reviewer or Editorial Board Member.


In the rare, exceptional, occasions when two independent peer reviewers cannot be secured, the Editor may act as a second reviewer or make a decision using only one report.
●    Editor must have a sufficient amount of knowledge in the area if acting as a second reviewer
●    Editor should sign the review to ensure transparency in the peer review process
●    Any single reports should be detailed and thorough
●    The first reviewer should be senior, on topic and have published recently on the subject



Ethics in publishing

Please follow Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work, such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose such interests in (a) summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted; (b) detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches.

Submission declaration and verification

Your submission of the manuscript implies that the work being reported has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis. Please see the information on multiple, redundant, or concurrent publication,  that it  is not  under consideration  for  publication elsewhere,  that its publication is approved by all authors and by the  responsible  authorities  where the work was carried out. If accepted, the work should not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright- holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.


Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time. Sharing your preprints e.g., on a preprint server will not count as prior publication.


Acknowledgment of diversity

Inclusive language is focused on acknowledgement of diversity, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid.



The list of authors should be prepared with careful attention. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) and signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

License agreement

Authors will be asked to complete a license agreement. Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.



Copyright is a type of intellectual property which protects certain sorts of original creative work, including academic articles. Copyright allows the creator of a work to decide whether, and under what conditions, their work may be used, published and distributed by others. As such, it governs how others can use, publish and distribute articles.

Open access (OA) is the process of making published academic articles freely and permanently available online. Anyone, anywhere can read and build upon this research. It is a movement to open up all the outputs of scholarly activity. This includes elements such as data, computer code, and citations.

Understanding your copyright options as an author is important. As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. Copyright in a work does not last forever. However, for a literary work such as an academic article, the duration is usually life of the author plus 70 years.

Funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Language (usage and editing services)

Text in American or British English is accepted. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available. They may contact the Editor-in-Chief at

Online submission system

The website guides you through the process of uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable Microsoft Word files are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Use of word processing software

Please save your files in the native format of the word processor, in a single-column format. Please do not right-justify the text. It is permissible to hyphenate words, use bold face, italics, subscripts, and superscripts. Please use grid formats in MS-Word as needed. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts.


You can use 4 figures, but please contact the Editor-in-Chief if you need to include more. Please make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork. Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option. Please use Arial, Calibri, or Times New Roman fonts. Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files. Please captions to illustrations separately.

Please size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version. You can submit the figures in a single Microsoft Office PowerPoint or Word file. To ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision, and hence avoid red and green colors if possible.

Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below). If you convert to TIFF or JPEG, please use a minimum of 300 dpi. If using bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi. For combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale) TIFF (or JPEG), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi. Please do not use GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG. If needed, please contact the Editor-in-Chief for help with illustrations.


You can use up to 4 tables, which include a title. Each column should be named. A column with p-values should be included if necessary. Footnotes should be included if needed. If you need to include more tables, please contact the Editor-in-Chief. Please submit tables as editable text and not as images.

Word limit

The word limit for the manuscript, figure legends, and tables is 3000 words. Original studies can include up to 100 references. The references will not be included in the word limits. 


We will accept video material and animation sequences. Authors are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article, in the references. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total.  Please supply 'stills' with your files to guide the readers. Please add a legend to the link, as you would do with a figure.


Data should be placed on an NIH repository, with appropriate references at the end of the manuscript, before acknowledgments.

This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images.

Supplemental files

Methods, figures, and tables may be provided. Appendices should be labeled.

Please avoid the use of footnotes as those can be missed by readers




A concise and factual abstract up to 300 words is required, but the editors will consider pre-approving longer, more detailed versions in specific cases. It does not have to be categorized but the abstract should state the purpose of the research, the methodology, the principal results and major conclusions. We do not include references in this section. Abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential, should be defined at their first mention. A systematic review will be given a utmost priority for the publications with the word limits.

List of headings

Please include a page with a list.


Please include a section of introduction, subsections on above headings, and a clearly-stated section on conclusions. The review can include as many references as appropriate. The word limit for the manuscript is 3000 words, but the editors will consider pre-approving longer, more detailed versions in specific cases


The manuscript can include acknowledgments after the manuscript, before the references begin.

Supplemental files (where applicable)

Supplementary material may include applications, images and sound clips. Submitted supplementary items will be published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please include a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file.

Reporting guidelines help to improve the accuracy, transparency and consistency in publications of various type of studies and enhance the significance of the research work. All manuscripts should be checked as per EQUATOR Guidelines for the different type of studies and the form should be submitted along with the manuscript. (


Online proof correction

We will request authors to provide us with their proof corrections within 2 days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version.

We will expedite the publishing process. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. 


At this stage, the articles will be published only online. We will continue discussions on the need for hard publications.


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